Categories
Home Remedies

Home remedies for fever

Now a days many of them keep getting ill be it because of not taking proper care of themselves or not being hygiene. Fever is one such disease that may occur any at times. This illness is ignored most of time but everyone should make sure so take precautions and not avoid it where you can get more ill. Fever can be a symptom of many health problems be it a flu or only a viral fever. Here are some of the home remedies for fever that can follow if you have a mild fever or even you want to control the fever which is increasing on a daily basis.

Baby Fever: How to Care for a Sick Baby

Stay Hydrated

The most imported step is to stay hydrated. Make sure you have lot and lot of water or other fluids so that you don’t go through dehydration. Drinking lot of fluids will help you give good amount of energy and not let you feel dizzy.

Warm water bath

If you are going through a viral or fever always have a Luke warm water bath so that the high temperature in your body can reduce a bit. Also, make sure the person should bath with complete cold water as he may get chills and there may be a rise in temperature.

Damp Cloth

This home remedy is being practiced from ages and is still practiced by everyone. Once the person is resting or sleeping, put a damp cloth on his forehead that is dipped in cold water. Follow this process in every 3 or 5 minutes which should go on until the temperature comes down a little.

Light Clothes

It is every important the person should make sure wear light and free clothes so that he can feel relaxed and not feel heavy. Make sure to not wear woolen clothes or packed clothes. Also avoid to use heavy blankets so that you don’t generate heat in your body.

Take a lot of rest

This is the most important step to follow. Make sure you take lot and lot of rest until you are fully recovered. If you move around u may catch more fever and also cold and cough because of too much exposure.

These are some of the home remedies for fever that you can consider to lower the temperature or if you are suffering from viral fever. We hope you have liked this post and stay healthy.

Thank You!

Categories
Pharmacy

Dedication to science drives a 20-year relationship between an information expert and a distinguished researcher

With about 600 articles published in major dermatology
journals, almost 40 books authored, 70 chapters in various books, and a h-index
of 49, Dr. Robert Baran is one of the most knowledgeable dermatologists in the
world. He began publishing more than 67 years ago, is invited to many
international conferences every year, and his specialty is nails.

He’s the one to ask about nail diseases and their therapies, and is one of the more active researchers in this field (Scopus mentions 7200+ citations and 380+ co-authors). He has membership in many societies (not the least of which is the American Academy of Dermatology as Honorary Member), and serves on many editorial or advisory boards.

Literature to the rescue

Dr. Baran is also a practitioner and leads the Nail Diseases
Center in Cannes, France, balancing his life between research and patient care.
But he has a challenge: he has no access to research facilities, such as a
general hospital. How does he manage this issue? Literature is the answer. His
office, where he writes his publications, is a real library, devoted to
dermatology, with thousands of references: articles, reviews, pre-prints,
books, abstracts of congresses, notes, and so on.

Delivering the nail bibliography

For decades, Dr. Baran has relied on information
professionals to survey what happens in the field of several subjects that he
is interested in. And I’m one of them. I have been helping Dr. Baran for almost
20 years, ever since I was a scientific information expert at a pharmaceutical
company, devoted in dermatology. Now I serve as a customer consultant at
Elsevier.

Every month, I provide Dr. Baran with the ‘nail
bibliography’, a survey of the biomedical literature, focused on the nail and
its diseases. Dr. Baran wants it to be quite detailed, to be sure we do not
miss any important papers (clinical trials, opinions, new cases, etc.). To meet
his needs, I have created a broad search strategy that covers Dr. Baran’s
favorite subjects, such as onychomycosis. He receives an alert, every month,
and then selects the relevant references.

How Embase helps

In this effort, I have always used Embase and MEDLINE, and,
for 10 years now, Embase.com. This is for several reasons, the first one being
the coverage. Dr. Baran needs a deep understanding and coverage of the
literature. He has an impressive comprehensive memory and understanding of the
literature in dermatology, and is still eager to learn more and more—that is
how he produces such a high-level work.

That is why combining the coverage of MEDLINE and Embase is mandatory. On average, in Embase.com, the unique Embase content represents about 28% of the database, MEDLINE stands for 28%, and 44% of the content is covered by both databases.

For the ‘nail bibliography’, 34% of the references are from the unique Embase content, which is meaningfully more than the expected average. That is why covering Embase and MEDLINE is valuable. Embase.com allows us to address both with a single request, using the Embase vocabulary, the Emtree thesaurus. This is another reason why I utilize Embase.com: it enables me to create a single search strategy that combines Emtree terms and free text words to broadly cover the subject. Emtree terms focus on very specific concepts, such as onycholysis or paronychia. Free text words help to cover the records that were very recently added to Embase.com and that are still in process.

Getting automatic alerts

Once the search strategy is designed, Embase.com helps to
automatically manage email alerts. So, each month, I receive an email, and then
I log into Embase.com to screen the bibliography—a task that is easier with the
clipboard and export feature. The search strategy can be modified or improved
at any time, according to the needs of Dr. Baran.

This emblematic example illustrates the usefulness of a tool
with a very broad content and advanced search functions. In the hands of a
scientific information expert, it makes it possible to best meet the needs of
the most demanding researchers.

Check out Embase.com now for yourself, or contact me if you want to know more about Embase and how it can help your research.

Categories
Pharmacy

What a Pharmacy Technician Does

Community/Retail Pharmacy:

I have worked retail, and I prefer other settings; however, it is where a large percentage of pharmacy technician jobs are found. What a pharmacy technician can do is determined by the state they work via state laws and rules. In general, technicians cannot provide clinical information to patients or be the final check for prescriptions. In some states, technicians are allowed to provide information on over-the-counter (OTC) medication (ie, medications that do not require a prescription, such as, acetaminophen and ibuprofen). Pharmacy technician tasks include, but are not limited to:

• Collecting patient information (insurance and personal information as needed)
• Entering and processing prescriptions in the computer system
• Filling and selling prescriptions
• Requesting refills from doctor offices for patients
• Compounding medications that are not commercially available
• Ordering medications
• Restocking shelves
• Answering the phone
• Working with insurance companies on approving payment for certain medications
• Maintaining the cash register and conducting accounting functions

Hospital Pharmacy:

There are many different roles for pharmacy technicians in a hospital pharmacy. I know this type of pharmacy best since this is where most of my work has been. The most common are technicians who work in the central pharmacy. In addition we have decentralized techs, sterile compounding techs, billing techs, OR techs, narcotic techs, database techs, automation techs, team lead techs, and buyer techs. These technicians as a whole perform the following tasks, but not limited to:

• Filling new orders, this includes a variety of medications from oral medications to specially prepared sterile compound medications (including chemotherapy meds)
• Answering the phone
• Tubing medications (if the pharmacy has a pneumatic tube station)
• Preparing medications for delivery
• Delivering medications
• Assisting floor pharmacists with medication histories
• Assisting floor pharmacists with IV drip checks
• Handling missing dose calls
• Billing medications where nurse charting does not bill
• Maintaining the pharmacy database
• Restocking operating rooms and anesthesia trays with appropriate medication
• Dispensing and tracking all controlled substances throughout the hospital
• Maintaining automation equipment [automated dispensing cabinets that store medication on nursing units, automatic fill systems (typically called Robot-Rx)]
• Purchasing of all medication and supplies needed in the pharmacy
• Leading and managing the technician workforce, including upkeep of schedules

Long-Term Care Pharmacy:

I have worked at a couple of long-term care pharmacies, and I think it is a great place to be a technician. They typically employee a lot of techs because the work load lends itself to a lot of technician tasks. These pharmacies provide the medication needs for nursing homes, assisted living facilities, and psychiatric facilities. The typical pharmacy is located in a warehouse. It does not have an open pharmacy for people to come to; they receive orders by fax and deliver all medications via couriers or drivers to facilities. The oral medication is filled in blister packs (cards of 30 tabs that are used to provide a 1 month supply of medication), or some other mechanism that provide the facility with an extended amount of medication doses that can be safely and cleanly kept until doses are due. Pharmacy technician tasks include, but are not limited to:

• Filling new and refill orders (different from hospital because of the number of doses provided)
• Processing new order and refills coming through the fax machine
• Order entry of prescriptions and printing of labels for fill techs
• Sterile compounding of medications (although there aren’t as many sterile compounded medications as a hospital, there are still enough that most long-term care pharmacies have a few techs specialize in sterile compounding
• Billing medications to homes
• Controlled substance dispensing and documentation
• Ordering medications and supplies
• Restocking medications that are returned that are still suitable for reuse.

Categories
Pharmacy

Medicines Discovery Catapult Nurture Next Generation Drug Discovery Researchers

Medicines Discovery Catapult (MDC) have welcomed a cohort of MRC-funded PhD students as part of a training, talent and skills agenda to help develop the next generation of drug discovery researchers.

Charlotte Criscuolo, University of Manchester; Rebecca Kelly, University of Liverpool; Michael Eyres, University of Oxford; and Tim Muntslag, University of Southampton have joined MDC to work on 4-6-month neuroscience and biomarker research projects.

The projects provide the next generation of innovative scientists with key training and exposure to industrial R&D, whilst increasing MDC’s capacity to carry out novel science in areas of benefit to the UK’s drug discovery industry.

Dr Nicola Heron MBA, Head of Collaborative R&D, Medicines Discovery Catapult and External Advisory Board Member, MRC DiMeN Partnership, said:

“Fostering the next generation of innovative scientists and budding entrepreneurs is crucial for the future of drug discovery. By hosting these students at MDC, we are helping to develop their commercial skills and industrial knowledge, plus the generic skills all researchers require to succeed – communication, time management, teamwork and critical thinking. The students also bring novel scientific approaches to MDC that are of potential benefit to the UK’s drug discovery community. The advantages of this Doctoral Training Programme are genuinely reciprocal, and it is a pleasure for MDC to be involved.”

Dr Martin Main, Head of Molecular Technologies, Medicines Discovery Catapult, said:

“Drug Discovery, like any scientific field, is constantly evolving. Hosting these students at MDC is invaluable. It gives us the opportunity to not only to pass on the scientific skills and knowledge my colleagues and I have developed through years of experience, but to also learn from these early career researchers who are incubators of novel science. It is a real privilege to play a part in setting them up for future scientific success through this Doctoral Training Programme.”

The positions were advertised through the Discovery Medicine North (DiMeN) Partnerships Doctoral Training Programme (DTP), and across the wider network of MRC-funded university DTPs, demonstrating a collaborative academic approach to nurturing talent and providing development opportunities to researchers throughout the UK.

The DiMeN partnership is made up of partner institutions including the Universities of Leeds, Liverpool, Newcastle and Sheffield, and aims to train the next generation of researchers to tackle the major health problems facing the population.

The partnership provides up to 30 fully funded studentships across the partnership per year, focussing on the complementary themes of:

  • Genetic Influences on Health
  • Ageing and Disease
  • Bioinformatics and Personalised Medicine

For more information on DiMeN and the DTP please visit: https://www.dimen.org.uk/

The post Medicines Discovery Catapult Nurture Next Generation Drug Discovery Researchers appeared first on .

Categories
Health

Precautions for COVID-19 that everyone must follow

As we all know, COVID-19 – the deadly virus is being spread rapidly and is not coming under control. COVID-19 is spreading rapidly because of which most of the people are falling sick and many of them are even dying. It is very important that every human of this world has to makes sure to follow all the precautions given by the government or WHO so that we can have a stop on this deadly virus. Here are precautions for coronavirus that every one must follow and make sure every one near your also follow.

Coronavirus Precautions: 10 ways to make sure you don't catch the ...

Wash Your Hands

The main step to prevent from COVID-19 is to regularly wash your hands with a clean soap or any hand wash that is at least once in every 20 minutes. Or, you can use alcohol rubs or hand sanitizer with Min of 60% alcohol as this process can kill the virus that may be present on your hand. Make sure to clean it completely specially near the nails and between the fingers too.

Social Distancing

Social Distancing is very important where you have to stay at least one meter or 3 feet from everyone. This is very important because when the infected person coughs or sneezes, the tiny droplets that are sprayed from their nose and mouth contains virus. If you are too near you can breathe in the droplets with the virus.

Avoid Touching Your Face

This step is also very important where you have to make sure that you don’t touch your face, eyes or nose as if the virus is present on your hand it can transfer the virus in your body through eyes, nose or face. Once the virus goes in your body it can make you skin and make others too.

Good Respiratory Hygiene

Following or practicing good respiratory hygiene is very important that is covering your mouth and nose while you cough or sneeze by a tissue or your elbow is necessary and also make sure to dispose the tissue or change your dress immediately and put it to wash. Always wear a mask while you are travelling or speaking to anyone to avoid COVID-19.

These are the precautions for coronavirus that every person has to follow so that they don’t get affected and make sure that the people who come in contact with them are also not affected. We hope you take care of yourself and maintain distance.

Stay Healthy!! Thank You!!

Categories
Home Remedies

Home Remedies for Cough

In day to day life with this busy schedule it is little difficult to take care of yourself especially about the toddlers. Kids and babies may get cough or cold at any time as they are not much attentive on their health as they are always in playground and dust plus they eat unhygienic food which may lead to many other illnesses. One of the most common one is cough which keeps on occurring. Rushing to doctor all the time is little difficult so there are some natural home remedies cough toddler and kids that can be used and are effective too.

Image result for Home Remedies for Cough

Honey

Honey is the most effective natural home remedies that can be given to the kids more than 1 year and above. Honey is one such liquid that is also loved by kids as it is very sweet and taste goods. This home remedy is highly recommended as it is an easy intake by the kids and also the best one.

Hot Fluids

Hot fluids are also one of the best home remedies cough toddler that can be used to clear the cough and get rid of itching. Drinking hot fluids like warm water or soups can help in reducing the thickness of the mucus and also it will help you stay hydrated.

Salt water gargle

Salt water gargle is also a very popular home remedy that is been used from ages to clear the itching caused due to dry cough. Here you have to mix salt with warm water and let your kid gargle and throw out the solution. This remedy is only recommended for older kids.

Chest Rub

This is also one of the home remedies that is used from ages by all our elders to clear the blogs of your nose to breathe in peacefully. But it also said that rubbing it on chest and increase mucus so it is recommended to apply it only near the nostrils.

These are some of the nature and best home remedies cough toddler that can be used to get kid of the irritation of cough and cold quickly with easy techniques. Make sure to consult a doctor if the kids have lot of cough and cold and can’t be controlled by these natural home remedies. We think you have got all the information you were looking for and found this article helpful. Do share your reviews on the same and let us know if you have any doubts or quires.

Stay Connected and Thank You for Visiting.

Categories
Pharmacy

CHMP turns down Lilly’s Emgality for cluster headache

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An EMA advisory panel has rejected expanding the use of Eli Lilly’s Emgality to include prevention of episodic cluster headaches.

The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) said the single 106-patient study filed by Lilly to support the new marketing application for Emgality (galcanezumab) “did not show clearly that Emgality is effective for preventing attacks” in people with cluster headaches.

The CGRP inhibitor has been approved in the US and Europe for chronic migraine prevention since 2018, and was cleared by the FDA for the cluster headache indication last June, becoming the first drug for this indication in the US.

Cluster headaches are distinct from migraine and less common, but are considered to be much harder to treat. They are characterised by severe pain, typically on one side of the head and around an eye, with attacks occurring during ‘cluster periods’ which can last weeks to months, notes the CHMP.

Lilly’s clinical trial – called GCAL – showed that over a three-week study period, patients given Emgality experienced 8.7 fewer weekly cluster headache attacks than they did at enrolment, compared to 5.2 fewer attacks for the placebo group.

That difference only just scraped above the threshold for statistical significance, however and the FDA is thought to have allowed its approval because of the lack of effective treatments for cluster headache, plus supportive secondary results in the trial such as the proportion of patients seeing a 50% or greater reduction in weekly attacks.

The CHMP has clearly taken a tougher line, and its negative opinion means patients in Europe will have to wait longer for a treatment option.

To give an indication of just how debilitating the condition can be, subjects in Lilly’s trial averaged more than 17 cluster headache attacks per week during the baseline period, equivalent to 2-3 every day. Attacks typically last between 15 to 180 minutes.

The CHMP’s verdict was also a blow commercially for Lilly, which was third to market after rival injectable CGRP inhibitors Aimovig (erenumab) from Amgen and Novartis – the market leader – and Ajovy (fremanezumab) from Teva.

Being the first CGRP drug to get a claim for cluster headache on the label in the US is viewed as a way for Lilly to carve out its own niche market, particularly as neither Aimovig nor Ajovy remains in development for this indication.

There is more competition in play for Emgality from Lundbeck’s new intravenous CGRP drug Vyepti (eptinezumab), which requires less frequent dosing of Emgality as well as Aimovig and Ajovy, but has to be given intravenously in a clinic rather than by subcutaneous self-injection.

Amgen reported $306 million from US sales of Aimovig last year, while ex-US licensee Novartis doesn’t break out its sales of the drug. Emgality leapfrogged second-to-market Ajovy last year, making $163 million compared to $96 million for Teva’s drug, thanks in part to the cluster headache approval.

GlobalData said last week – ahead of the cluster headache rejection – that it expects Aimovig and Emgality to lead the migraine prevention market in 2025 with sales of $1.8 billion and $1.7 billion respectively, with Vyepti making around $566 million in that year.

Meanwhile, there are challenges elsewhere in Lilly’s migraine franchise too, with two new orally-active CGRP blockers for acute migraine treatment – Allergan’s Ubrelvy (ubrogepant) and Biohaven’s just-approved Nurtec ODT (rimegepant) – expected to exert pressure on Lilly’s acute therapy Reyvow (lasmiditan).

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A first-in-class 5-HT1F receptor agonist, Reyvow was cleared by the FDA in October but only launched a few weeks ago – at a price of $640 for eight pills – because it had to wait for scheduling by the US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).

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Categories
Pharmacy

FDA report shows 2019 was a strong year for innovation

Source: FDA.gov

On January 2, 2020, the FDA released the CDER annual report, stating that 2019 was “another strong year for innovation and advances.” The FDA cleared 48 new drugs for market, making it the second most productive year in the last decade (2018 approved 59 drugs). But given the fact that the total number of submissions have gone down, and that the American government was shut down for a lengthy period at the beginning of the year, the FDA delivered an impressive result in 2019.

I’d like to share some of my personal thoughts
after reading this report. Here are a few notable highlights and my takeaways:

1. 21 of CDER’s 48 novel drug approvals, or 44%, were orphan drugs

What does that tell us?

* As Janet Woodcock, director of the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, puts it, “New drug therapies for patients suffering from rare diseases are often among the most important approvals. Patients with rare diseases frequently have few or no drugs available to treat their condition — and for them, approvals of so-called “orphan” drugs can mean new hope for an enhanced quality of life, and in some cases, survival.”

* Patient unmet needs and market value merges where the pharmaceutical companies pay attention and take practical approaches. One of the most promising avenues that big pharmas can take is to partner with non-profits focused on particular unmet needs, and to collaborate with small biotech companies that are specializing in tackling unmet needs. One such example is Beacon Discovery, which has partnered with several leading companies, focusing on helping them with early-stage research and discovery.

If 2019 was a good year for orphan drugs, 2020 is already getting off to a great start. In Q1, three more possible orphan drugs to be on the look-out for include: Oxbryta, the first treatment to address the root cause of sickle cell disease (SCD); Adakveo, an injectable treatment for SCD patients who suffer from vaso-occlusive crises (VOC); and Givlaari, a drug to treat the blood disorder acute hepatic porphyria (AHP). Learn more about these drugs here.

2. Innovative
new therapies

Some of these new drugs in development are built
on very exciting new innovations:

* The above-mentioned Givlaari is based on RNA interference (RNAi), a technique that silences abnormal gene expression. As BioSpace reports, Givlaari is only the second drug to be approved leveraging RNAi.

* The cancer drug Rozlytrek, for pan-tumor use, marks only the third time that the FDA has “cleared a cancer drug to treat tumors based on a specific genetic signature rather than by location in the body,” explains BioPharmaDive.

As evidenced by the emergence of innovative drugs like these, my personal opinion is that we are truly transitioning into the era of precision medicine and personalized medicine, when more and more oncology drugs are being developed based on the use of biomarkers and targeted delivery of medicine.

3. 10 new biosimilars

Biosimilars, which are drugs that are very
similar to already-approved biologics, had a busy regulatory year in 2019, with
many new approvals and new guidance documents published.

There were 10 biosimilar approvals covering
indications for numerous conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, plaque
psoriasis, breast cancer, metastatic stomach cancer, metastatic colorectal
cancer, non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer, glioblastoma, metastatic renal
cell carcinoma, cervical cancer, B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, chronic
lymphocytic leukemia, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and microscopic
polyangiitis.

“Biosimilars have great potential for both patients and the entire health care system. As patents and exclusivity protections for biologics expire in the United States, we can expect many more biosimilars to be submitted for approval. More products on the market means greater competition that can lead to increased access to therapies and lower costs to patients.”
– Janet Woodcock

4. The first-ever FDA novel approval drug from a Chinese pharmaceutical company

November 14, 2019  was a clear milestone for Chinese pharmaceutical companies, as it was then that Brukinsa from BeiGene received FDA approval for the very first novel therapy from China in history. Regulatory reform in China has enhanced innovative drug discovery and clinical development, encouraging innovation and speeding patient access to new drugs.

Studies showed that BeiGene’s drug has real promise. “The FDA’s decision is largely based on tumor shrinkage data from a phase 2 trial in 86 Chinese patients,” reports FiercePharma. “In that single-arm study, Brukinsa triggered an overall response rate of 84% with a median duration of response of 19.5 months. Some 59% of patients saw a complete response, meaning their cancers were undetectable after treatment.”

A mission to work together

To quote Janet Woodcock once more: “CDER’s mission goes well beyond
critically reviewing the safety and efficacy of drug applications we receive
from industry … We are working to develop more innovative and efficient
approaches for the development and study of the drug therapies that will emerge
from these technological advances.”

I believe this is also the dream and the
mission of most people working in the pharmaceutical industry: to work
collaboratively with partners across academia, industry, patients, caregivers
and regulators to provide true benefits for patients. We at Elsevier Life
Sciences solutions all share that same mission.

If you are interested in finding out more about collaborations to support drug discovery and development, please read more on our website.

Categories
Health

Improve Your Well-Being – How Your Attitude to Health Can Help

What is Health?

How do you define health? Is it a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being? Is it merely the absence of disease or infirmity? Or is health a resource for everyday life, rather than the objective of living; a positive concept, emphasising social and personal resources as well as physical capabilities?

Good health is harder to define than bad health (which can be equated with the presence of disease), because it must convey a concept more positive than mere absence of disease, and there is a variable area between health and disease. Health is clearly a complex, multidimensional concept. Health is, ultimately, poorly defined and difficult to measure, despite impressive efforts by epidemiologists, vital statisticians, social scientists and political economists. Each individual’s health is shaped by many factors, including medical care, social circumstances, and behavioural choices.

Health Care

While it is true to say that health care is the prevention, treatment and management of illness, and the preservation of mental and physical well-being, through the services offered by the medical, nursing and allied health professions, health-related behaviour is influenced by our own values, which are determined by upbringing, by example, by experience, by the company one keeps, by the persuasive power of advertising (often a force of behaviour that can harm health), and by effective health education. Healthy individuals are able to mobilise all their physical, mental, and spiritual resources to improve their chances of survival, to live happy and fulfilling lives, and to be of benefit to their dependants and society.

Achieving health, and remaining healthy, is an active process. Natural health is based on prevention, and on keeping our bodies and minds in good shape. Health lies in balancing these aspects within the body through a regimen consisting of diet, exercise, and regulation of the emotions. The last of these is too often ignored when health advice is dispensed, but can have a pronounced effect on physical well-being.

Diet

Every day, or so it seems, new research shows that some aspect of lifestyle – physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, and so on – affects health and longevity. Physical fitness is good bodily health, and is the result of regular exercise, proper diet and nutrition, and proper rest for physical recovery. The field of nutrition also studies foods and dietary supplements that improve performance, promote health, and cure or prevent disease, such as fibrous foods to reduce the risk of colon cancer, or supplements with vitamin C to strengthen teeth and gums and to improve the immune system. When exercising, it becomes even more important to have a good diet to ensure that the body has the correct ratio of macronutrients whilst providing ample micronutrients; this is to aid the body in the recovery process following strenuous exercise.

If you’re trying to lose weight by “dieting”, don’t call it a diet, first of all – successful dieters don’t call what they do a “diet”. A healthy diet and regular physical activity are both important for maintaining a healthy weight. Even literate, well-educated people sometimes have misguided views about what makes or keeps them healthy, often believing that regular daily exercise, regular bowel movements, or a specific dietary regime will alone suffice to preserve their good health. Despite the ever-changing, ever-conflicting opinions of the medical experts as to what is good for us, one aspect of what we eat and drink has remained constantly agreed by all: a balanced diet.

Exercise

Physical exercise is considered important for maintaining physical fitness and overall health (including healthy weight), building and maintaining healthy bones, muscles and joints, promoting physiological well-being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system. Aerobic exercises, such as walking, running and swimming, focus on increasing cardiovascular endurance and muscle density. Anaerobic exercises, such as weight training or sprinting, increase muscle mass and strength. Proper rest and recovery are also as important to health as exercise, otherwise the body exists in a permanently injured state and will not improve or adapt adequately to the exercise. The above two factors can be compromised by psychological compulsions (eating disorders, such as exercise bulimia, anorexia, and other bulimias), misinformation, a lack of organisation, or a lack of motivation.